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Liquid Measures:

  1 cup  (1 C.)

  Water (measures & weighs the same)

8 fluid ounces (fl. oz.)

1 C. = 8 oz. weight (water only)

1/2 pint (pt.)

237 ml

 16 tablespoons

  2 cups  (2 C.)

16 fluid ounces

1 pint

473 ml

 

  4 cups  (4 C.)

32 fluid ounces

1 quart

946 ml

 

  2 pints (2 pt.)

32 fluid ounces

1 quart

0.946 liters (L)

 

  4 quarts (4 Qt.)

128 fluid ounces

 1 gallon (Gal.)

 3.785 liters

 

  8 quarts (8 Qt.)

one peck

(ie: apples/pears, etc.

 

 

 

  4 pecks

one bushel

 

 

 

  dash

less than 1/4 teaspoon

 

 

 

 1 teaspoon (1 tsp. or 1 t.)

1/6 fluid ounce

5 grams

about 5 ml

 

 1 Tablespoon (1 T. or 1 Tbsp.)

1/2 fluid ounce

15 grams

15 ml

3 teaspoons

 2 Tablespoons 

1 fluid ounce

28.35 grams

29.57 ml

1/8 cup

 8 Tablespoons 

4 fluid ounces

1/4 pint

118.28 ml

1/2 cup

 

Dry Measures:

  1 pinch

 1/8 teaspoon or less

     

  3 teaspoons

 1 Tablespoon

 1/2 ounce

 14.3 grams

 

  2 tablespoons

1/8 cup

 1 fluid ounce

 28.35 grams

 

  4 tablespoons

 1/4 cup

 2 fluid ounces

 56.7 grams

 

  5 1/3 tablespoons

 1/3 cup

 2.6 fluid ounces

 75.6 grams

 

  8 tablespoons

 1/2 cup

 4 ounces

 113.4 grams

 1 stick butter

  12 tablespoons

 3/4 cup

 6 ounces

.375 pound

 170 grams (g)

16 tablespoons

1 cup

8 ounces

   

  32 tablespoons

 2 cups

 16 ounces

 1 pound (lb.)

 453.6 grams

  64 tablespoons

 4 cups

 32 ounces

 2 pounds

 907 grams

 

Measurements for common kitchen baking ingredients

Butter: 1 stick = 4 oz. = 113 gms. = 8 tbsp    1 lb. butter = 2 cups

 

Bread Flour, sifted: 1 lb. = 4 cups (1 cup = 4oz.)

Unsifted: 1 lb. = 3 1/3 cups (1 cup = 4.75 oz.)

Cake Flour, sifted: 1 lb. = 4 1/4 cups (1 cup = 3.75 oz.)

Unsifted 1 lb. = 3 1/2 cups (1 cup = 4.5 oz.)

Sugar, granulated: 1 lb. = 2 1/4 cups

Powdered (confectioners): 1 lb. = 4 cups

Cornstarch, unsifted: 1 lb. = 3 1/2 cups

 

Cocoa Powder, unsifted: 1 lb. = 5 cups (1 cup =  3 1/2 oz.)

 

Baking Soda/Baking Powder: 1 oz. = 2 tbsp

 

Salt: 1 oz. = 4 tbsp (1 tsp. = .2 oz.)

 

Ground Spices: 1 0z. = 14 tsp (1/4 oz. = 3 1/2 tsp.)

 

 

Item Fahrenheit Celsius Comments

Water Freezes

32o F

0o C

 

Chocolate Melts

99o F

37o C

Body temperature

Water Boils

212o F

100o C

 

Thread begins

230o F

110o C

Syrup makes a 2" thread when dripped from a spoon

Soft Ball begins

234o F

112o C

Small amount of syrup dropped into chilled water forms a ball, but flattens when picked up with the fingers

Firm Ball begins

244o F

118o C

The ball holds its shape, and only flattens when pressed

Hard Ball begins

250o F

121o C

The ball is more rigid but still pliable

Soft Crack begins

270o F

132o C

If a small amount of syrup is dropped into chilled water it separates into threads which bend when picked up

Hard Crack begins

300o F

149o C

The syrup separates into threads that are hard and brittle

Caramelized Sugar

310o F - 338o F

154o C - 170o C

Between these temperatures the syrup will turn dark golden, but turns black at 350o F (177o C)